Browse Tag

Laparoscopic surgery

Brief History of In Vitro Fertilization

Brief History of IVF

Let’s start at the beginning. In-Vitro Fertilisation, or now more commonly known as IVF treatment saw a flicker of hope as early as the mid-1800s. In the mid-1800s, scientists finally discovered the process of artificial fertilization using a combination of sperm and egg.

History of IVF In the 19th Century

In the 1900s, fresh pieces of research on hormones and how they related to fertility began more fervently. Though around then, IVF-like researches were performed on rabbits..

In 1965, Dr. Jones worked with Dr. Edwards of England and fertilized the first human egg in vitro, all for the world’s first IVF baby.

After three years, in 1968, Dr. Edwards joined Dr. Patrick Steptoe in England, and performed a laparoscopy surgery to retrieve an egg and fertilize it in-vitro (in the lab). The results were published in 1969.

In 1973, the first pregnancy through IVF was reported from Monash university by CarlWood and it was a biochemical pregnancy.

In 1976 an ectopic pregnancy was reported by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards.

First Pregnancy through IVF

Then in 25th July 1978, IVF saw its first birth by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. It took 102 IVF cycles to achieve this first successful IVF birth. The couple, Lesley and Peter Brown, became the parents to a healthy daughter, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first test-tube baby.

In this sentinel IVF birth, the mother had a natural menstrual cycle, physicians laparoscopically retrieved a single pre-ovulatory oocyte from her ovary, fertilized it in vitro, and then transferred the resulting eight-cell embryo into her uterus. Even as the birth made headlines around the world, several legal and ethical questions were raised about the future of mankind. However, this one successful birth presented a happy chance for many couples who were battling fertility issues.

When Second IVF baby was born ?

Second IVF baby was born in India – Durga alias Khanupriya Agarwal on October 3rd 1978 . The Pioneer was Dr Subhash Mukopadyay.

Now with reproductive technology booming, the race for test-tube babies was on. After England’s test-tube baby, Australia announced its achievement in 1980. A year later, USA announced the birth of its very own IVF baby, Elizabeth Carr. But many harboured a big concern: the worry that an IVF baby cannot conceive naturally. The concern was put to rest when Louise Joy Brown gave birth to her own baby in 2006, conceived and birthed naturally.

After the 80s, fertility treatments took off like wildfire. Fertility drugs were improved and further researched on; instead of laparoscopic surgeries to retrieve eggs, doctors began taking it out through the vagina; sperm boosting hormones for men facing fertility issues was being prescribed. Embryo freezing and thawing as well as ICSI have revolutionised the IVF treatment and its outcome.Comprehensive Chromosome Screening is now a very important health check for the unborn baby.

How IVF Treatment has been developed in India?

Growth of IVF treatment has been the fastest compared to any other medical field. And keeping up with the achievements in India, one can now secure the best IVF treatment in Bangalore with us. The positive impact of IVF was so great that now World IVF Day is celebrated on the 24th of July, to commemorate the birth of the first IVF baby – Louise Joy Brown.

Laparoscopy Treatment

Ways in Which Laparoscopy Treatment Can Help With Infertility Problems

Laparoscopy is a surgical discipline which primarily involves the doctor making 1 – 3 small cuts (or incisions) on the body through which a laparoscopic tube is inserted. A laparoscopic tube is a surgical instrument fitted with a light and a camera. Laparoscopy typically helps reduce post-operative pain and reduces the risks of open surgery. That being said, the use of laparoscopy for infertility in women is still a topic of debate as those with pelvic pain may be required to undergo surgery. While an ovarian drilling is the most commonly performed operative procedure, a myomectomy will help in the removal of fibroids from the uterus. In addition to pelvic pain and irregular or heavy periods, these fibroids can also cause blockages in the uterus that can make it more difficult for the woman to conceive.

 

When is Laparoscopy recommended?

A healthcare professional may suggest to opt for laparoscopic surgery for infertility only after infertility has been tested, and furthermore, if the symptoms warrant it. The conditions for which laparoscopy treatment may be recommended include:

  • Menstrual cramps / pelvic pain
  • Suspected endometriosis
  • Any inflammatory disease / pelvic adhesions
  • Suspected hydrosalpinx: This is a case of a blocked fallopian tube that hinders IVF success rates.
  • Endometrial deposits that are detrimental to fertility
  • Suspected ovarian cyst that may / may not cause pain and / or distortion in the uterine cavity.
  • Fibroids that cause pain

 

Why is it important?

Although the use of laparoscopy treatment on women for infertility is still a topic under debate, there are certain cases of infertility where laparoscopy is the only viable surgical method as it allows the doctor to see the inside of the abdomen and diagnose any suspicious growth of cysts. Laparoscopy can also be employed to eliminate any scar tissue, fibroid, and / or endometrial deposits.

 

How is it done?

Laparoscopic surgery requires a hospital environment while employing the use of general anaesthesia. A laparoscopic surgery can be conducted inside a fertility clinic, however, it is not recommended as it requires trained and seasoned professionals who can guide the patient on the necessary preparations. The patient might be advised to avoid eating and drinking at least 6-8 hours prior to the laparoscopy surgery and might even be instructed to take antibiotics during that period.

The anaesthesiologist will place a mask over your face, and after breathing a sweet-smelling gas for a few minutes, you’ll fall asleep. Once the anaesthesia has taken effect, the doctor will make a small cut around your belly button. Through this cut, a needle will be used to fill your abdomen with carbon dioxide gas. This provides room for your doctor to see the organs and move the surgical instruments in the right directions.

Once the abdomen is sufficiently filled with gas, the doctor will then insert the tube through the incision made to analyse the pelvic organs. The surgeon may also employ a biopsy for testing. It all starts with the surgeon visually examining the pelvic organs and the surrounding abdominal organs for any presence of cysts, scar tissues, adhesions, fibroids, and / or endometrial growths. A dye can be injected through the cervix, so the surgeon can evaluate if the fallopian tubes are open.

If ectopic pregnancy is suspected, the surgeon will evaluate the fallopian tubes for an abnormal pregnancy.

 

Post-operative scenario: 

  • The patient, during the surgery, will be under the effect of anaesthesia and will not feel any pain
  • The patient may / may not wake up with a sore throat
  • The area around the incisions may feel sore which is completely normal
  • The patient may also feel bloated due to the excess of CO2 gas inside
  • It will take you 2-3 days to recover from the strenuous effect of the laparoscopy treatment and you can resume most of your activities in 2-3 days’ time depending on nature of the surgery.
  • The doctor may prescribe additional medicines and antibiotics to help you recover from the effects of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery