Infertility is the inability to get pregnant after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. About 50 million couple worldwide experience infertility. The numbers are rising as years pass by due to various factors.
It is frustrating when you realize that you need to take help for such a basic human function, reproduction. However, you are definitely not alone. There are thousands of couples who want to get over the phase from childlessness to parenthood as quickly as possible. This path may be easy for some and not so easy for some.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disorder, affecting about 5% of women. In women with polycystic ovaries, the ovaries are enlarged with multiple small cysts, which are nothing but the immature eggs which are not growing. These ovaries also have thick stroma which produces excessive androgens. They may also have an altered ratio of pituitary hormones- FSH and LH which interferes with ovulation. Excessive androgens are also responsible for acne and hirsutism.
Viagra tablets (famous as a blue pill) sell like hotcakes soon after its launch in 1998 and completed its 20th anniversary in 2018. It still continues to be the first line of medical treatment for a penile erection problem (Erectile Dysfunction).
Viagra contains Sildenafil, which was initially tested in cardiac trials. It was termed as a “lucky accident” when the nurses in the wards started noticing that these patients’ who received Viagra preferred lying on their tummy with embarrassment to hide their penile erections. It was then more studies were done to establish its role in erectile dysfunction (ED).
What is low testosterone?
Testosterone is an important hormone for men. Produced by the testes, the hormone gives men many of their masculine characteristics, like facial hair and a deeper voice. It is involved with sperm production and sex drive. It also contributes to strength, bones, and muscle mass.
Low testosterone, also called hypogonadism, occurs when a man’s body doesn’t produce adequate amounts of the hormone.
Erectile Dysfunction(ED) Causes and Treatment
It can cause low self-esteem, performance anxiety, depression, and stress. Erectile Dysfunction (ED) may affect the quality of a marriage or intimate relationship. The good news is there are many safe and effective treatments.
Once a couple decides to go ahead with IVF(In vitro fertilization), the next concern is the success rate and to decide where to do it. As we all know IVF has its limitations and a variety of factors influence the outcome. Some of them are under our control and some of them are not.
IVF Success Rates
The outcome of an IVF cycle depends on the quality of the embryo which in turn depends on the egg quality and the sperm quality. Egg quality is mainly dependent on the age of the woman. As age increases, particularly in the late thirties, the chances of having aneuploid/ abnormal eggs increases. ICSI( intracytoplasmic sperm injection) can overcome most of the sperm-related problems but severely abnormal semen samples can give rise to poor quality embryos, thereby compromising the IVF success rates. Egg numbers are equally important. Studies show that IVF success increases as the number of eggs retrieved increases up to about 15 eggs. Thereafter there is no further increase in the success.
There has been increasing evidence on the global decline in human sperm quality over the past few decades. In the most recent report, an international study group performed a systematic analysis of the current trends in sperm counts. This comprehensive study involved 42,935 men with semen samples spanning over 40 years. They reported a significant decline of 50– 60% in sperm counts amongst men from North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. This latest finding has sparked even greater concern over the reasons behind the apparent decline in the sperm count of Western men.